First aid common sense
We are in work and life, from time to time will encounter trauma. Damage to the skin, blood vessels and nerves, fractures, and so will inevitably lead to bleeding. Accounts for about one’s circulating blood volume weight of 8%, and the blood loss was less than the total blood volume 5% (200 ~ 300 ml), the body can be automatically compensated; blood loss more than 20% of total blood volume (about 800 ~ 1000 ml), the injured have pale, indifference, limb cold, as well as the rapid shallow breath symptoms, early into the shock. Once the blood loss too fast, especially acute massive blood loss, the injured not the positive and effective first aid, there will be life-threatening. The consequences of acute bleeding is very serious, therefore, to stop bleeding is an important measure to rescue the wounded, to save the lives of the wounded has a special significance. The author teaches you a few strokes on the spot to stop bleeding quickly first aid method.
1, the scene how to quickly stop bleeding?
(1) bundled with tourniquet hemostasis. If there is no tourniquet around, can use wire, cloth, rope, rubber band and other bundled hemostasis.
(2) can be used to stop bleeding by pressing, pressing, etc..
Pressure: when I saw the wound bleeding, immediately hold the bleeding area by hand, this is the compression hemostasis, compression hemostasis and divided into two kinds. One is the direct oppression of the wound, whether with a clean gauze or other cloth items directly in the bleeding area, can effectively stop bleeding. Another is acupressure hemostasis and finger pressure in the bleeding artery proximal adjacent bone, blocking blood supply source, in order to reach the purpose of hemostasis. When looking for the point of oppression with the index finger or ring finger, do not use the thumb, because the middle of the thumb has a gross artery, easy to cause miscarriage of justice. When the arterial compression point is found, then change the thumb to press or a few fingers at the same time pressing.
Two pack: no matter what kind of bleeding, and ultimately to be used to solve the bandage. The material used is a gauze, bandage, elastic bandage, or a clean cloth or a pad made of cotton fabric. The principle of dressing is to cover the first package, the intensity is moderate. After the first cover, cover the wound on the first cover (large enough, enough thick cotton fabric liner), and then use a bandage or triangular bandage. After the completion of the dressing to check the tightness, moderate intensity of the bandage to stop bleeding is effective.
2, the use of tourniquet hemostasis when bound to pay attention to what?
(1) the tourniquet should be tied to the proximal end of the wound, the upper arm and thigh should be tied to the 1/3 site. Arm in the 1 / 3 position can not be the use of a tourniquet. In order to avoid oppression of radial nerve injury, caused by upper limb paralysis; below the mid thigh level should not be used, thigh below the middle of the artery was located deep, not easy compression lived, sometimes not enough pressure, no pressure deflated artery and only pinned the venous reflux, bleeding but more, and they will cause limb swelling and necrosis.
(2) tourniquet must use pad to protect the skin, smooth skin can not be directly tied to. The tightness of the tourniquet to moderate, to touch to the distal pulses and the cessation of bleeding is appropriate, not too tight, so as not to hurt the nerve, also can not be too loose, only to suppress venous return, bleeding but more.
(3) tourniquet limb should be well protected, special attention should be paid to warm in winter, to avoid frostbite.
(4) to be elastic tourniquet bleeding is appropriate, as far as possible in the 1~2 hours were rushed to the hospital. This method is effective, but it is easy to damage the body, and it affects the late recovery. So, every 30~50 minutes to relax a tourniquet, relax for 2~5 minutes each time. At this time, but also with finger wound, avoid large hemorrhage.
The 3 time is too long, tight binding tourniquet what risk?
Improper binding and hemostasis can cause distal limb ischemia and necrosis. In the clinical work often encounter some injured patients, wire, cloth, rope, rubber band and the injured limb above the strapping hemostatic came to the hospital, the doctor to the patient examination was injured when, often found due to bundling too tight or binding in the wrong place, tying the skin, nerves, blood vessels and muscle damage, serious induced ischemic necrosis of the distal limb.
If bundles have been more than 9 hours the wounded to transport to the hospital, doctors generally do not immediately relaxing tourniquet. Due to the distal limb survival is no longer possible, necrotic cells will release toxic materials potassium ion, myoglobin, and peptide limb at this time if the release, these toxic substances will with vein into the whole body, poisoning, can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden death. So, unless it is necessary, you can use other methods to stop the bleeding.
4, other magical tourniquet
Summer is the season of snakes, scorpions, centipede snake very active, outdoor travel once bitten by a snake, should take timely remedial actions. First, don’t panic run, acuteness activity will accelerate the blood circulation, accelerate the body of toxins absorption, increased symptoms of poisoning; then quickly with a tourniquet or string in from the wound 5-10 cm strapping, prevent the spread of toxin in the body, to suck the poison out, with water or tea wash the wound, and quickly sent to the hospital.
Anyway, in the normal working life, if the occurrence of physical injury bleeding, we can according to the emergency treatment, if the situation is serious, should promptly to the hospital by the medical staff to professional treatment, avoid illness of incur loss through delay cause greater damage.
First aid common sense